Wilkes University

Vancouver Referencing Guide: Example of In-Text Citation and Reference List

A guide to the Vancouver referencing style commonly used in the biomedical sciences

Samples of in-text citations and corresponding References list

In-text citation examples:
In unhealthy diet, obesity and physical inactivity play a role in the onset of Type 2 diabetes1 but it has been shown that increased physical activity substantially reduces the risk,²  and participation in regular physical activity is one of the major recommendation of the evidence based guidelines for the primary prevention of diseases.1

According to the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet, over 25.8 million Americans (8.3% of the population) have diabetes mellitus which had been medically diagnosed.3 It has also become apparent that there was a huge increase in Type 2 diabetes in the pediatric population in the past decade.4 Unfortunately, among those in whom diabetes has been diagnosed, adherence to recommendations regarding lifestyle changes is often less than 50%.5

Sample References List (based on in-text citation examples above):

1. Unhealthy Diets & Physical Inactivity [Internet]. [place unknown]: World Health Organization; 2009 [cited 2012 Sep 19]. Available from: http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/fact_sheet_diet_en.pdf
2. Gill JM, Cooper AR. Physical activity and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sports Med [serial on the Internet]. 2008 [cited 2012 Sep 5];38(10):807-24. Available from: EBSCOhost Research Databases/Nursing & Allied Health Collection http://www.wilkes.edu/library/articles.asp 
3. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: National Estimates and General Information on Diabetes and Prediabetes in the United States, 2011 [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011 [cited 2012 Sep 20]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf 
4. Kaufman FR. Type 2 diabetes in children and young adults: a “new epidemic.” Clin Diabetes [serial on the Internet]. 2002 [cited 2012 Sep 20]:29(4):217-28. Available from: http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/20/4/217.full.pdf+html
5. Lindenmeyer A, Hearnshaw H, Vermeire E, Van Royen P, Wens J, Biot Y. Interventions to improve adherence to medication in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of the literature on the role of pharmacists. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006;31(5):409-19.