The Place of Publication is defined as the city in which the individual or the organization issuing the publication resides.
The place of publication is generally the location of the publisher, as indicated on the title page or the back of the title page.If more than one place of publication is found, use the first one or the one set in the largest type or in bold type.
In the case of the Internet, the place would be the location of the Web site. This information is usually found at the bottom of a homepage, but may also be at the top of the first screen or at the end of a document. If it is not in one of these locations, it may be obtained from a linkage within the site, usually under a “contact us” or similar link.
There are two options if the place cannot be determined:
(1) if the city can be reasonably inferred, the city is placed in brackets (for example, Bethesda as the place of publication of a report issued by the National Cancer Institute because that's where the NCI is located)
(2) if it is not possible to infer the city, the words “place unknown” are put in brackets.
Follow the city by the two-letter state abbreviation in parentheses if necessary, such as Scranton (PA). Foreign places are cited in the manner of Frankfurt (Germany) or Frankfurt (DE), the latter using the International Standard Organization two-character country code. State or country information is generally omitted if the place is very well known; thus it is “New York” not “New York (NY)” and “Paris” not “Paris (FR).”
Format of Place of Publication
If there is more than one copyright date listed in a book, use the latest.
If no year of publication is found in the book but it can be determined from some other source, place brackets around it, e.g., . If no date can be determined, put “date unknown” in brackets.
Unfortunately, the dates of publication and the dates of any updates or revisions are often absent from webpages and other electronic sites, making the date you actually saw the source (called the date of citation) very important. If a revision/update date is given, place the date of citation after it, and enclose both in brackets; for example “[updated 2010 Feb 4; cited 2012 Nov 4].”
Dates should be expressed in the format of Year Month Day, with the year in four digits and the month abbreviated to three spaces; for example 1776 Jul 4.
Some webpages clearly state the date that the site was placed on the Internet, using such phrases as "first published," "created," and "began." When they do not:
The publisher is a firm or organization responsible for issuing the publication or website.
For book, the publisher is generally a publisher which prints or otherwise reproduces textual or graphic material for sale or distribution to the public. The name of the publisher (and place of publication) is usually found on the back of the title page.
In Internet terms a publisher is defined as the individual or organization which produces or sponsors the website. This information is usually found at the bottom of a homepage, at the top or on a sidebar of the first screen, or the end of a document. The publisher may also be identified by looking for the organization named after a copyright statement, e.g., copyright 1997 by the American Chemical Society or in the “contact us” information. If wording such as “this site is maintained by XYZ Corporation for ABC Organization” appears, ABC Organization is considered the publisher and XYZ the distributor. A publisher name is generally given in a citation as it appears on the screen, with whatever capitalization and punctuation is used.
General rules for publishers: