Capitalize as follows:
Although ithey may seem arbitrary and nitpicking to you, punctuation rules in reference citations are extremely important. The citation is a form of scholarly shorthand that allows academics
to communicate internationally using a common language.
Follow the punctuation and spacing for specific types of references as illustrated in this LibGuide. Other general guidelines for punctuation are:
A DOI/doi (digital object identifier) is a persistent identifier provider by publishers so that the article or other object can always be found online.
If an article has a DOI, this should be provided after the page number details.
To use a DOI in a citation:
Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Bassi C, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus folinic acid vs gemcitabine following pancreatic cancer resection: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010 Sep 8;304(10):1073-81. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.1275.
When providing a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for a resource that is available online, begin with the phrase “Available from” followed by a colon and a space.
Insert the entire URL; do not omit http://, www, or other beginning components.
If the URL you are citing runs into the next line, be sure to break the address after a colon “:” or a slash “/” (http:// is an exception—do not break here). Never break a URL at a
hyphen “-“. Do not insert a hyphen into a URL.
End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash; otherwise end with no punctuation.