Wilkes University

Vancouver Referencing Guide: Illustrations

A guide to the Vancouver referencing style commonly used in the biomedical sciences

Illustrations from Another Work

If you include any illustrations (such as tables, figures, graphs, etc.) in your work that you have obtained from another source, you must reference them. They should be acknowledged both in your text and in the Reference List. Illustrative material found in works you have consulted may have come from yet another earlier source. Consult the original publication and cite from there.

If there is no title on an item, create a title and enter it in square brackets in the place of the title when listing it in the Reference List.

An image--a visual representation of an object or scene or person such as a photo—is often an entire work in itself and may be protected by copyright law; this is not the same as a graph, table or figure which appears as part of a larger work. Obtain permission, if necessary, to use an image. Images from royalty free clip art, such as the clip art available in Microsoft Word or Power Point, do not need to be cited.

In-text Citation and Reference List Example

Mention the table/figure in the text and give it a number. (Number each table and figure in consecutive order.) Note that the number will be a number for YOUR document, not the number in the original document. At the title/caption of the table/figure, enter the number for the source document that is listed in your Reference List. References to figure/table illustrations should be cited as though they were in the main body of the text, i.e, numbered in accordance with the Reference List sequence established in the your text. If you change the name of the table/figure in your document, you must cite the original title in the Reference List.

      Example:

      These agents work at one or more of the anatomic control sites (Figure 1) ...

                    Figure 1. Anatomic sites of blood pressure control8

      8. Benowitz NL. Antihypertneisve agents. In. Trevor AJ, Masters SB, Katzung BG. Basic & clinical pharmacology [book on the Internet]. 11th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Lange;
          2009 [cited 2013 June 26]. Figure 11-1, Anatomic sites of blood pressure control, p.168. Available from: EBSCOhost eBook Collection.
http://web.ebscohost.com/


Generally, the information for the illustration is entered after the year or page numbers, depending on the type of source from which it is taken. See examples below:

Reference Type: Table from a Print Journal
Enter details as for a normal journal reference. After the pages insert a period after the page numbers and then add the details for the table.
Example:
Carragee EJ. Persistent low back pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(18):1891-1898. Table 1, Common therapies for patients with chronic low back pain; p. 1894.

Reference Type: Table from an Online Journal
Enter details as for a normal online journal entry. After the pages insert a period after the page numbers and then add the details for the table.
Example:
Boutin-Foster C. In spite of good intentions: patients’ perspectives on problematic social support interactions. Health Qual Life outcomes [journal on the Internet]. 2005 Sep 5 [cited 2007 Jan 5];3(1):Article 52. Table 1, Demograpnic chagacteristics of study participants; p.3. Available from: http://www.hqlo.com/content/3/1/52


Reference Type: Figure from a Book
Enter details as for a normal book reference. After the Year insert a period and then add the details for the illustration.
Example:
Berg J, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 6th ed. New York: Freeman and Company; 2007. Figure 15.12, Stages of catabolism; p.419.

Reference Type: Figure from a Chapter of an eBook
Enter details as for a normal online book chapter. After the Date Cited enter a period and then add the details for the illustration. Omit the inclusive chapter pages.
Example:
Benowitz NL. Antihypertneisve agents. In. Trevor AJ, Masters SB, Katzung BG. Basic & clinical pharmacology [book on the Internet]. 11th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Lange; 2009 [cited 2013 June 26]. Figure 11-1, Anatomic sites of blood pressure control, p.168. Available from: EBSCOhost eBook Collection.

Reference Type: Image from a Website
Enter details as for a normal website. After the Date Cited insert a period and then add the details for the illustration.
Example:
ADAM Editorial Team. Cholecystolithiases [image on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.s. National Library of Medicine, national Insstitutes of Health; 2008 [updated 2010 May 7; cited 2010 Jun 25]. [Figure], Cholecystolithiasis: CT scan of the upper abdomen showing multiple gallstones. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1156.htm