Wilkes University

Vancouver Referencing Guide: Audiovisual Materials

A guide to the Vancouver referencing style commonly used in the biomedical sciences

Audiovisual Materials

Audiovisuals include video and audiocassettes, motion pictures, DVDs and slides. For referencing audiovisual material indicate the medium, i.e. the type of material, in square brackets after the title.

The chief source for information about an audiovisual is the opening screens. If more information is needed, consult the case housing the audiovisual or any accompanying booklet or other documentation.

Standard Format for Audiovisuals

Author(s). Title [format].  Producers. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication.  Physical description. 

Carlson J. Depression [videocassette]. VandenBos GR, producer. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2005. 1 videocassette: 100 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.

Aging & creativity [videocassette]. Grand Rapids Community College, Media Technologies Department, producer. Medfield (MA): Aquarius Health Care Videos; 2002. 1 videocassette: 27 min., sound, color, 1/2 in.

Amaral RS, Hoffman CW 3rd. Life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni [motion picture]. Amaral RS, Hoffman CW 3rd, producers. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco; 1983. 1 reel: sound, color, 16 mm.

Pediatric surgery [slides].  Chicago:  American College of Surgeons; 1989. 177 slides: color, 2 x 2 in.